Simulation Models on Human–Nature Interactions in Urban Landscapes: A Review Including Spatial Economics, System Dynamics, Cellular Automata and Agent-based Approaches
Urbanisation belongs to the most complex and dynamic processes of land use and landscape change. At present, we claim “the millennium of the cities,” since more than half of the currently 6.6 billion world population is living in urban areas. Due to the huge impact of urban land consumption on environment and landscape, this paper provides a review of existing urban land use models. The review analyses non-spatially explicit economic and system dynamics models, spatially explicit cellular automata and agent-based model approaches by addressing the respective conceptual approach, model components and causal relationships, including feedbacks. Based upon the review, conclusions are drawn regarding the future development of urban landscape models, as well as on indispensable causal relationships and their representation when modelling urban systems.