6 Discussion

In this paper, we try to link the Anthropocene, the Fourth Paradigm and landscape sustainability. Based on the literature, we suggest that urbanisation and globalisation are core drivers of landscape change associated with the proposed Anthropocene. The Anthropocene debate also creates an avenue for landscape researchers to further understand the depths of human impact on urban landscapes. The anthropogenisation of the planet is what the Anthropocene represents (Zalasiewicz et al., 2008Jump To The Next Citation Point). Scientists continue to argue on the timing and ratification of the term (Ruddiman, 2003; Meybeck, 2003; Schlütz and Lehmkuhl, 2009). The arguments may persist until the final decision is taken by ICS. Nevertheless, scientists with a stake in landscapes have shown solidarity with the Anthropocene idea and what it stands for. From the prestigious Nobel Prize awarded to Crutzen to the unlimited peer-reviewed publications, conferences, and so on. The Anthropocene has experienced broad scientific and public acceptance.

This article identifies globalisation and urbanisation as the key driving forces of the Anthropocene. This is based on an attempt to ascertain the critical rather than the general drivers of the proposed Anthropocene contrary to the conceptualisation of the term based on other sources of pressures (Crutzen, 2002; Lövbrand et al., 2009; Zalasiewicz et al., 2008, 2011, etc.). One of the limitations of this article is that it assumes that industrialisation is an integral part of urbanisation and globalisation. This may not be acceptable to some researchers. Although industrialisation is closely tied to the needs of the urban population, its role is enormous in the proposed Anthropocene epoch. Further studies are required to explore the role of this driving force of Anthropocene. Should it be ratified, Anthropocene could be measured in terms of human imprints on planetary boundaries. In relation to this, it is important to establish connections between population pressure and landscape change at the urban level. This article focuses on the modern scientific explanations of landscape. Studies on indigenous landscape perceptions may reveal alternative perspectives on meanings of landscape. There are many landscape cultural perspectives around the world. Even the European Landscape Convention recognises people’s perception of the landscape (Antrop, 2005; Llausàs and Nogué, 2012).

This article’s main argument is that globalisation and urbanisation are the leading driving force behind the proposed Anthropocene. However, these processes are more intensive and rapid in developing countries (Marcotullio, 2001; Marcotullio et al., 2003; Marcotullio, 2008). Incidentally, these countries are considerably lagging behind in substantive landscape policies. Problems could be understood more thoroughly using data resources offered by the Fourth Paradigm. In this way, landscape science can provide leadership for interdisciplinary research. As a meta-discipline, landscape science recognises social and ecological parameters (Schaldach and Priess, 2008; Uuemaa et al., 2009) and policy issues (Massari, 2010). As a result, the Fourth Paradigm would greatly help landscape researchers from data deficient areas to acquire free data for use in solving local and regional challenges. Big data could facilitate better planning to respond to environmental crises such as flooding, sundry human and natural disasters. Without this revolution and the anticipated use of the raw data material, the future crises would be very complex. Poor data affects our understanding of land use, climate, ecosystem and other critical issues (Dozier, 2011).

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